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在考虑使用 Y 型分线器载运额外冷藏箱时,支持会员降低风险

News & Insights 28 June 2022

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协会注意到,越来越多的会员正考虑使用 Y 型分线器,以将其集装箱船上载运的冷藏箱数量提高到设计额定限值之外,并就此进行咨询。但是,这样做...

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协会注意到,越来越多的会员正考虑使用 Y 型分线器,以将其集装箱船上载运的冷藏箱数量提高到设计额定限值之外。但是,这样做存在电缆过载的风险。这会导致产热过量,并增加发生火灾的可能。如果船员没有经常监测并检查额外电缆、插座、插头和冷藏箱的状况,这一风险会大大增加。

协会完全理解这样做的商业吸引力,并愿意一如既往地支持会员管理和降低风险。本文旨在提醒各位会员在对载运超出船舶指定容量的额外冷藏箱进行风险评估时应注意的事项。

1. 额外冷藏箱施加的电力载荷与电源功率的比较

船舶只能载运特定数量的冷藏箱,有最大限制,这是有原因的。在核定时需考虑货物(冷藏箱)、机械用电、生活用电所施加的载荷和发电机功率,还要留出额外的安全裕度。

虽然与之前的型号相比,最新款冷藏箱的效能更高、能耗更少,但如今许多集装箱船队使用的大部分仍然是旧款冷藏箱。这种旧款冷藏箱往往比新款冷藏箱耗电更多。还需要考虑船龄使发电机效能降低的因素。

冷藏集装箱的功耗取决于许多因素,包括天气、储存条件、集装箱类型,并且可能因商品类型(即冷藏或冷冻商品)而大不相同。通常,内部温度越高,耗电越多。一旦货物冷却,平均功耗就会下降。如果多个较热的冷藏集装箱同时开启制冷,耗电可能会超过电源功率。

当船舶遇到恶劣天气或在堵塞水域中航行时,电力可能变得更为重要,因为可能需要启动艏侧推进器或其他辅助设备(如额外的操舵电动机、辅助鼓风机等)提供额外动力。

协会了解到,船东和租船人就使用 Y 型分线器的船舶达成协议,在航行期间不使用艏侧推进器,租船人负责支付额外的拖船费用。归根到底,任何时候都需要确保总负载不超过设计的额定值。

2. 使用 Y 型分线器的安全事项

通过 Y 型分线器可以将多条冷藏箱线连接到单个电源插座;但是,如果负载超过发电机(或电源组,如有)的功率,则存在断电/跳闸、停电、火灾和引发其他间接责任(如货物损坏、航行、污染等)的风险。

还需要考虑 Y 型分线器、冷藏箱延长线、插座和插头的额定功率,任何时候都不应超过其额定功率。

如果操作不当,Y 型分线器可能不会受插座面板的集成式安全设计保护。在分线器通电时,不应插入或拔下冷藏箱的插头。建议首先将冷藏箱插头连接到分线器,然后连接电源通电。

分线器和相关设备应处于良好状态,能够承受冲击载荷和电涌。不应在同一电路上使用多个 Y 型分线器,如有需要,应使用电源组安全增加船舶发电机功率。

分配电力载荷的一种方法是将冷藏和冷冻商品的冷藏箱插在同一分线器上。然而,规划通常需要视装货港和卸货港的情况而定,可能并不总是能够高效地规划冷藏箱或分配载荷。或者,某些船舶经营人更喜欢使用“配电箱”代替,因为它可以安全地调节冷藏箱的功率(并防止两个冷藏箱同时开启制冷)。

 

 

3. 额外冷藏箱的放置位置

如果综合考虑上述所有因素后,同意载运额外的冷藏箱,则需认真考虑其在船上的放置位置,这非常重要。额外的冷藏箱应放置在甲板之上。如果放置在货舱内,货舱通风机风扇可能无法满足所需的空气交换,从而导致货物过热并引发后续问题。

如果冷藏集装箱放置过高,在高层甲板上插入/拔下冷藏集装箱电源或在航行期间监测集装箱温度时,可能会有人员(船员或装卸工人)受伤的风险。如果高层甲板上放置的冷藏箱出现故障,那么船员将无法采取任何措施维修,这可能引发货物索赔的问题。或者,船舶需要为此配备可移动平台。

结论

总之,当考虑在船舶指定容量之外载运额外的冷藏箱时,必须进行适当的计算,以确保冷藏箱施加的载荷不超过船舶电源功率,并牢记船舶机械用电和生活用电需要消耗的备用功率。功率计算应由船级社验证并批准。

在了解所有相关变量的同时,应谨慎使用 Y 型分线器,并认真考虑额外冷藏箱的放置位置。人员安全至关重要。

超出集装箱船指定容量的额外冷藏箱的载运可能构成协会规则所指的重大风险变化,和/或运输、贸易或航行可能不谨慎或不安全。因此,必须提前通知协会,防止保险受到损害的风险。

在这种情况下,通常会建议会员取得其租船人的保函 (LOI)。例如,如果就不使用艏侧推器达成协议,或由于位置无法触及而不要求对冷藏箱进行监测/维修。协会非常乐意就 LOI 向会员提供建议或协助,以覆盖此类情况的风险。

** 感谢 Anglo-Eastern Ship Management  对本文的贡献。

 

3. Stowage location of additional reefers

Provided that all the above-mentioned factors have been considered and it has been agreed to carry additional reefers, their stowage location onboard would be an important factor to consider – the additional reefers should be carried above deck. If these are carried inside holds, the cargo hold ventilator fans may not be able to keep up with the required air exchange, leading to overheating and subsequent issues with the cargo.

If the reefer containers are stacked higher in the tier, there will be a risk of personnel injury (crew or stevedores) when plugging/unplugging the reefer at higher tier on deck or trying to monitor the container temperature during the voyage. If there is a malfunction of a reefer carried at a higher tier on deck, then there will be nothing much the crew can do to rectify the issue which may lead to a cargo claim. Alternatively, the vessel will need to be provided with portable platforms for this purpose.

Conclusion

In conclusion, when considering to carry additional reefers beyond the ship’s designated capacity, it is vital that a proper calculation is done to ascertain that the loads exerted by the reefers do not exceed the capacity of the ship’s power source and keeping in mind the reserve power that will be required by the ship’s machinery and domestic consumption. The power calculations should be verified and approved by the Classification Society.

Y-splitters should be used with caution while understanding all the variables involved and due consideration should be given to the stowage location of additional reefers. The safety of personnel is paramount.

The carriage of additional reefers beyond designated capacity of containership may constitute a material change of risk within the meaning of club’s rules, and / or the carriage, trade or voyage may be imprudent or unsafe. As such, it is essential to notify the club in advance to prevent the risk of cover being prejudiced.

In such cases, members are often asked to accept letters of indemnity (LOIs) from their charterers e.g., in cases where an agreement is reached on not using bow thruster or not requiring reefers to be monitored/repaired due to their inaccessible location. The club will be happy to give the member advice or assistance with respect to LOI to cover such situations.

** The club would like to thank Anglo-Eastern Ship Management  for their contribution.

类别: Loss Prevention

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